Started by Jannabear, May 24, 2016, 02:03:47 PM
Quote from: Cavebear on October 26, 2016, 03:43:14 AMEquality means equal chance at any job given equal pertinent merits. In studies where gender is disguised, women are chosen as often as men. In screened musical tests, women are chosen more often than when seen by judges. And there is the obvious biases. On airplanes, where a passenger suffers a problem and a doctor is asked for among the passengers, black female doctors are ignored in favor of white male doctors, white female doctors, and even general pharmacists. Bias is against the idea of black female doctors. We will have a fair society when all bias is eliminated.
QuoteOrchestrating Impartiality: The Impact of â€œBlindâ€ Auditions on Female MusiciansAuthors: Claudia Goldin Cecilia Rouseâ€œBlindâ€ orchestra auditions reduce sex-biased hiring and increase the number of female musicians.â†"FINDINGS â†"METHODOLOGYThe difficulties associated with proving and addressing gender discrimination in hiring processes have presented policymakers with a major challenge over the past few decades. In an attempt to overcome gender-biased hiring, a vast majority of symphony orchestras revised their hiring practices from the 1950s. Many orchestras opened up their hiring process to a range of candidates, rather than only hiring musicians who were handpicked by the conductor. As a result of these changes, most orchestras now hire new players after about three rounds of live or recorded auditions: preliminary, semi-final, and final. Additionally, as part of these revisions, a number of orchestras adopted â€œblindâ€ auditions whereby screens are used to conceal the identity and gender of the musician from the jury. In the years after these changes were instituted, the percent of female musicians in the five highest-ranked orchestras in the nation increased from 6 percent in 1970 to 21 percent in 1993. Given the low turnover found in most symphony orchestras, the increase in female musicians is significant. In this seminal study, the authors examine whether these new hiring practices were responsible for the increase observed in womenâ€™s employment in symphony orchestras.Findingsâ€œBlindâ€ auditions for symphony orchestras reduced sex-biased hiring and improved female musiciansâ€™ likelihood of advancing out of preliminary rounds, which often leads to tenured employment.Using a screen to conceal candidates from the jury during preliminary auditions increased the likelihood that a female musician would advance to the next round by 11 percentage points. During the final round, â€œblindâ€ auditions increased the likelihood of female musicians being selected by 30%.According to analysis using roster data, the transition to blind auditions from 1970 to the 1990s can explain 30 percent of the increase in the proportion female among new hires and possibly 25 percent of the increase in the percentage female in the orchestras.In short, â€œblindâ€ auditions significantly reduced gender-biased hiring and the gender gap in symphony orchestra compositions.MethodologyIn the 1970s and 1980s, most symphony orchestras in the United States began adopting â€œblindâ€ auditions whereby the identity of potential candidates was concealed from the jury by a screen. In this study, the authors make use of existing audition records and orchestra personnel rosters to examine the effects of â€œblindâ€ auditions at various stages in the audition process on the likelihood of women advancing and eventually being hired. The dataset is unique because it contains the complete contestant pool for each audition and allows authors to link individuals across multiple auditions.Audition records were collected from 8 major symphony orchestras, dating from the late 1950s to 1995. The analysis sample for auditions consists of 14,121 person-rounds, 7,065 individuals and 588 audition-rounds.
QuoteDr. Tamika Cross, who is an OBGYN in Houston, posted on Facebook last weekend that a Delta flight attendant rejected her offer to help a sick patient and questioned whether she was really a doctor. Dr. Cross is young and black. Another doctor on board was allowed to help. He was older and white.Her story is all too familiar to me. Over the last few years, I have interviewed dozens of black women doctors for my documentary film, Black Women in Medicine. Time and time again they would share with me stories about how they were mistaken for home health aides or dieticians. People refused to believe a black woman could be a physician, much less a surgeon. Dr. Jennifer Ellis, who is one of only six black female cardiothoracic surgeons in America, said that the further away your appearance is from TVâ€™s Marcus Welby, the harder it is for people to believe youâ€™re a doctor.Dr. Crossâ€™ experience highlights a major problem in our society. Currently, only 2% of all physicians are black women. This sobering statistic has real-life implications for the health of our country. Women like Dr. Cross have persevered in medical fields in part by overcoming barriers linked to race and gender. Dr. Joycelyn Elders, the first African-American Surgeon General, told me, â€œYou canâ€™t be what you canâ€™t see.â€What we have learned is that minority doctors are more likely to provide care to minority, underserved, and disadvantaged communities, meaning their under-representation is of utmost concern. We all must challenge the status quo by replacing the false and debasing historical narrative regarding race, ethnicity and gender with positive, empowering images. We must bring together doctors and students of all ages and build powerful relationships to inspire new generations of medical professionals.We tell our black children they can be anything they want to beâ€"an engineer, a scientist, a surgeon. We tell mainstream America that everyone has equal opportunity and that, post-Obama, racism does not exist. Then we read about what happened to Dr. Cross and it makes you question what itâ€™s all about.
Quote from: Cavebear on October 26, 2016, 04:35:50 AMThe exact examples I had in mind. Thank you.
Quote from: Baruch on May 25, 2016, 02:35:09 AMFrance is the only country to support egalitarianism. They are the only Western country actively suppressing religion. English speaking countries all support feral capitalism. Germany supports feral immigrants.